تاریخ تولید و انتشار: ۲۱ آذر ۱۳۹۹ برابر با ۱۱ دسامبر ۲۰۲۰ جمعه
حفظ نظام از اوجب واجبات است! به هر قیمتی!
اگر هموطنان ما در ایران و در کشورهای همسایه توسط امریکا و اسرائیل، ترور میشوند، اگر خطر حمله قشون خارجی وطن ما را تهدید میکند، اگر خطر جنگ داخلی و تکه پاره شدن ایران، پیوسته بیشتر شده است، اگر…، همه و همه به علت وجود رژیم ولایت مطلقه است. در صورتیکه قدرتهای داخلی و خارجی، در جنگ روانی، رژیم و قوای نظامی-انتظامی-امنیتی-اطلاعاتی رژیم را مدافع ایران و حافظ تمامیت ارضی ایران تبلیغ میکنند.
این رژیم نیست که خطرها را از میهن ما دفع میکند. درست برعکس! به خاطر این رژیم است که همه خطرها و تهدیدها علیه وطن ما، پیوسته بیشتر میشوند. هر یک روز بیشتری که این رژیم بر سریر قدرت بماند، حیات ملی ما در خطر سقوط بیشتری قرار میگیرد.
مطلب را به شکل صوتی، در همینجا بشنوید:
افزایش ۵۸ درصدی بودجه سپاه پاسداران، از ۲۴ هزار و ۳۳۵ میلیارد تومان در سال جاری به ۳۸ هزار و ۵۶۴ میلیارد تومان در سال، در بودجه پیشنهادی سال آینده…
لینک مطلب در شبکهبندیهای اجتماعی، برای: عضو شدن و دنبال کردن و مشترک شدن، رایدادن، ابراز نظر، پسندیدن، پیاده کردن،و لطفا همرسانی:
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boycott executions medications
Despite a high-profile clemency campaign by allies of President Trump, the administration executed Brandon Bernard by lethal injection for his role in the 1999 crime.
No Drugs, No Executions: Is This the End of the Death Penalty?
As states scramble to find new lethal cocktails, a lack of options could spell the end of capital punishment.
On Oct. 15, 2013 Florida executed William Happ, a man who most agreed deserved little sympathy. Happ kidnapped 21-year-old Angela Crowley in 1986 from outside a convenience store in Crystal River and raped and strangled her before dumping her tormented body into the Cross Florida Barge Canal. Three years later he was convicted of rape and murder and sentenced to death.
Happ’s execution lasted 14 minutes before he was pronounced dead—double the time typically expected when pentobarbital, the executioner’s drug of choice for years, was used. He “remained conscious longer and made more body movements after losing consciousness than other people executed recently by lethal injection,” according to Associated Press reports.
Happ died for his crimes committed 27 years ago. Like hundreds before him, Happ’s death was administered through an intravenous injection of a lethal drug cocktail.
Like no one before him, Happ was injected with midazolam hydrochloride, a sedative that had never before been used for an execution in the United States.
Happ’s execution reflects an American death-penalty system in crisis: States are running out of the drugs they rely on to carry out death sentences as alternatives for how to secure them quickly diminish. And no one wants to innovate in the execution industry. As the medical community works to distance itself from the science of killing people, states are attempting to forge a difficult road ahead, one fraught with litigation, international tension, and uncertainty.
Death penalty states illegally imported drugs for executions despite warnings
States are locked in legal battle with the federal government after regulators intercepted illegally imported anesthetics to be used in lethal injections
Death penalty states are locked in a legal battle with the federal government after regulators intercepted shipments of illegally imported anesthetics that were destined to be used in executions as part of lethal injection protocols.
Documents released by the Arizona department of corrections as a result of a lawsuit led by the Guardian and joined by several Arizona news organizations reveal that the state’s department of corrections (DoC) was clearly warned by federal officials against illegally importing the drugs. Yet the documents in Guardian versus the DoC director Charles Ryan show that days later the state went ahead with importing the drugs regardless.
On 13 July, the US Department of Justice wrote to the DoC and said that the state’s desire to import sodium thiopental – an anesthetic that is not approved for importation in the US – was illegal. The letter said that according to the Food and Drug Administration, the federal agency that regulates medicines, “there is no approved application for sodium thiopental, and it is illegal to import an unapproved new drug into the United States”.
Despite the crystal clear warning, Arizona went ahead with the shipment, which arrived at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport on a British Airways flight on 25 July and was duly blocked by FDA officials.
The existence of the detained shipments was first reported by the Arizona Republic, which is party to the Guardian’s lawsuit.
Dale Baich, a leading authority on death penalty litigation based in Arizona, said he was troubled by the state’s behavior. “Their position is that they need these drugs to carry out executions, but you cannot break the law to enforce the law.”
Arizona is not the only death penalty state that has tried to circumvent an international boycott of US lethal injection drugs by seeking illegally to import anesthetics. BuzzFeed News has revealed that Nebraska and Texas are also engaged in similar legally dubious activities.
A BuzzFeed News investigation this week tracked down the source of the foreign drug shipments to Chris Harris, a man with no pharmaceutical background and whose company, Harris Pharma, operates in a small rented office in Kolkata. The news organization reported that he may have sold execution drugs to as many as five death penalty states in the US.
The focus on the nefarious ways that death penalty states are seeking to acquire killing drugs came as Barack Obama expressed concerns about capital punishment. He told the Marshall Project that he found botched executions, as well as racial bias and the risk of innocent people being put to death, “deeply troubling”.
The Guardian documents reveal that the Arizona DoC spent $25,000 buying 1,000 vials of sodium thiopental at $25 each. The total cost of the shipment came to $26,700.
A spokesman for the DoC confirmed to the Guardian that the FDA was continuing to block the execution drugs from reaching its death chamber, and said that the state was contesting the action. In the released documents, Arizona promises that it “will not use, or attempt to use, the sodium thiopental currently being imported until this cargo is either unconditionally released by the FDA or the department is otherwise permitted to do so by a court order”.
The Guardian lawsuit was lodged in a federal court as a means of challenging the secrecy adopted by the state in an attempt to hide the source of its execution drugs. Arizona is one of several death penalty states that have adopted new secrecy laws that prevent members of the public from finding out how the ultimate punishment is being carried out.
Baich said that death penalty states were going to great lengths to hide what they were doing “because what they are doing is questionable. This demonstrates why secrecy is a problem – if states operated in the open they would not deal with shady drug providers and they would not be able to skirt the law.”
Ohio executes inmate using untried, untested lethal injection method
Ohio executes inmate using untried, untested lethal injection method
A reporter for the Associated Press, which sends a journalist to every execution in the US, wrote that McGuire “appeared to gasp several times during his prolonged execution … McGuire made several loud snorting or snoring sounds during the more than 15 minutes it appeared to take him to die. It was one of the longest executions since Ohio resumed capital punishment in 1999. McGuire’s stomach rose and fell several times as he repeatedly opened and shut his mouth.”
Another eye-witness report from the Columbus Dispatch provided concurring evidence. Dispatch reporter Alan Johnson wrote that four minutes into the procedure, “McGuire started struggling and gasping loudly for air, making snorting and choking sounds which lasted for at least 10 minutes. His chest heaved and his left fist clinched as deep, snorting sounds emanated from his mouth.”
Ohio’s department of corrections originally put the official length of the execution at 15 minutes, but later in the day revised that to 25 minutes.
McGuire’s defence attorney, Allen Bohnert, said that according to reports he had been given from witnesses in the chamber, the prisoner was gasping for breath from about ۱۰٫۳۰am to 10.44am. At some point, witnesses told Bohnert, McGuire tried to sit up, turned his head toward his family members who were witnessing, and spoke to them. One witness described the scene as “ghastly”.
Bohnert told the Guardian: “At this point, it is entirely premature to consider this execution protocol to be anything other than a failed, agonizing experiment by the state of Ohio. The people of the state of Ohio should be appalled at what was done here today in all of our names.”
McGuire, 53, was executed for the 1989 rape and murder of Joy Stewart, who was 22 and about 30-weeks pregnant at the time. Her unborn child also died.
Members of Stewart’s family were present at his execution, and before it they put out a statement that said the manner in which McGuire was put to death was more humane than the brutal way he had murdered Joy.
Ohio’s recourse to the midazolam-hydromorphone combination was forced by a shortage of pentobarbital, a drug originally manufactured in Denmark, which has been subjected to strict export licences that prevent sale to US departments of correction. A European-wide boycott, designed to ensure that medical drugs are not used to kill people, has begun to bite across the 32 states that still have the death penalty on their books.
Ohio ran out of pentobarbital in September.
The adoption of midazolam as an alternative drug – not only in Ohio, but also in Florida, one of the most active death penalty states – has led to expressions of anger and disgust by leading physicians in the US. Joel Zivot, the medical director of the cardio-thoracic and vascular intensive care unit at Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta and an opponent of the use of anesthetics in lethal injections, called the use of midazolam in executions “appalling and unethical”, and said, “The public should be concerned that [the] medicines that are used to help them are being diverted instead to kill people.”
The human rights group Reprieve, which has been a key influence behind the European boycott, has accused Ohio and Florida of stockpiling midazolam to the detriment of medical services.
Midazolam, a drug that is commonly prescribed to treat critically-ill patients because of its short half-life and relatively few side-effects, is already in short supply in hospitals, and medical practitioners fear the dearth will now intensify given the sharply increasing demands of prison wardens. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, which monitors the supply of pharmaceuticals, reports “demand exceeding supply due to current market conditions”.
Florida, which now uses midazolam in its three-drug lethal injections, injects a dose of 500mg into prisoners. Zivot pointed out that a normal dose for a critically-ill patient would be 5mg. “Do the math – you can see how many patients have been deprived of these medications because of their use in just one execution.”